Politik als Show? (German Edition)
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The German edition of Rolling Stone magazine put US actress Emma Stone in translucent lingerie on the cover of its February issue, and, for the rest, fell back on well-known elderly or middle-aged gentlemen like Bob Dylan or Campino of Toten Hosen fame. Darth Vader stares out from the cover of the year-end issue. Traditionally, moreover, precious few female acts take part in major festivals like Rock am Ring and Hurricane, or even alternative events like the US import Lollapalooza Berlin.
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It is even deemed noteworthy when a woman bassist takes the stage with an international band like The XX. German-speaking female artists are few and far between; the line-ups are invariably dominated by the same old male rock bands like the Beatsteaks, Metallica or Die Toten Hosen.
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But — and this must be rated a sign of progress — the dearth of women has at least become an issue. Many a magazine article and blog post, along with the Facebook group Hey Ladies , discuss the paucity of female performers and contest the argument often advanced by organizers that there are simply far fewer eligible women artists around. Has it really gotta be? And yet some German critics actually find refreshing this stylization of the unfairly maligned, but unbending, lone wolf acting out — at least verbally and unfiltered — his fantasies of humiliating women.
New melancholy Some cloud rappers like Yung Hurn or Rin, on the other hand, have no problem with the new models of maleness and show that emotions can be expressed differently in words. So, too, Stefan Trettmann, who changed from a fun Dresden dancehall act to a melancholiac. Nor does Romano with the plaited pigtails, who knows no stylistic boundaries, fit the bill for musical machismo.
Wild to perform at the awards ceremony, whereupon public broadcaster ARD dropped the show — and private broadcaster Vox picked it up emceed by Xavier Naidoo and Sasha. So Musikexpress magazine launched a survey about political self-conceptions and sent a questionnaire to German artists: only 29 answered. More robust, in contrast, Die Fantastischen Vier: on their new track Endzeitstimmung Doomsday Mood , the indestructible fun hip-hoppers attack Nazis point-blank. Probably the most hotly debated and decidedly political song of was by Kettcar.
Social structures that determine access, participation and the distribution of privileges require examination. Research on everyday life and the influence and practices of the professions on people with disabilities must embed such analysis in broader social and political dynamics.
Here, further studies of the life course, of families e. Cross-disciplinary syntheses of cultural, sociological, psychological, and educational approaches should clarify the structures and processes leading to disablement. Thus far, too few studies explicitly apply theory developed in DS to explore and explain the living conditions and lived experiences of people with disabilities in Germany.
Yet the contrast of bodily impairment versus disablement as the consequence of social barriers and oppression continues to be a key debate in DS. The social model has been criticized as essentialist by connecting disability to bodily impairment. Today, differentiated theoretic models help to explain the causes and consequences of disability as a social and cultural construction at the micro level of the individual life course, the meso level of organizations, and at the macro level of society.
Thus, DS has the important task to reconstruct subjective experiences and thus complement—and to a certain extent replace—"expert" knowledge about disability. The perspective "nothing about us—without us" has yet to be everywhere acknowledged. These gaps in German DS research relate to the relatively weak institutionalization of the field in both universities and in extra-university research institutes, which contribute most research in many fields. With only a few exceptional universities devoting resources to DS, research project proposals to the German Research Foundation DFG and other third party sources become all the more important.
In this competitive context, reputable journals and other high quality publication outlets become even more important. Without an independent journal devoted to the above themes, collaborators across disciplinary boundaries face particular challenges. With some exceptions, the translation of key texts in DS into other languages has been modest and vice versa, which makes the accumulation of research and scientific advance more challenging.
Therefore, the issue of language hegemony is ever-present.
From this focus on contemporary contexts, themes, and gaps of DS scholarship, we conclude by analyzing significant barriers and facilitators of DS in the German-speaking world. Barriers include language hegemony, disciplinary dominance, lack of academic infrastructure, and ableism in the academy. These are counteracted by a number of significant facilitators that support and sustain the subversive status of DS: from the linkages between academics, advocates, and activists to the use of international networks exemplified in the discourse among the German-speaking countries , and the dedication of members of the field to make connections and contribute to DS.
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If the reception of Anglophone debates in German DS has been important, with reference made to key studies, the disciplinary heterogeneity of DS also challenges the development of an accepted canon, whether in English or in German. Few journals in languages other than English contribute to bring the research results and perspectives of DS into sub- national discourses.
Despite the notable developments of disability activism, antidiscrimination legislation, and the rise of intersectionality as a theoretical approach to human differences, DS remains in a marginal position with regard to mainstream social science disciplines, such as sociology, economics, or political science. Even professionals, in such fields as special education, rehabilitation or social work that are most connected to disability, despite their good intentions, seem to rarely reflect upon their roles in reproducing institutional power dynamics.
Yet most DS scholarship has been produced by scholars whose homebase is one of these departments that reproduce these structures and relationships.
This makes the paucity of intellectual homes that are genuinely multidisciplinary and devoted to critical DS even more problematic. Questions of power, language and discipline are thus paramount for achieving the potential of DS. As in the US, Great Britain, and elsewhere, the founding and development of DS in Germany has been strongly linked to the disability movement.
International conferences, like the Society for Disability Studies annual conference, serve to connect scholars and activists—and span boundaries between communities. However, in contrast to the US or UK, the relatively weaker institutionalization of Gender Studies and, later, LGBT or Queer Studies, in the German-speaking countries did not provide spaces within higher education and science in which the origins of social categories and their effects could be deconstructed.
Universities in the German-speaking world remain discipline-bound. Joint research on questions of gender, sexuality, and disability relies to a large extent on networks devoted to these topics, with a few university centers providing organizational support. Indeed, those larger universities that have established courses of study in Gender Studies are most likely to have stronger DS, not least because of the considerable overlap in research interests, theories, and methodologies.
Whether in sociology or education, history or political science, significant studies of disability exist. However, the lack of positions for many scholars let alone activists in the academy, insufficient career perspectives, and the weak independent institutionalization of DS in universities and research institutes has limited the development of sustained DS scholarship in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Our analysis suggests that, despite increasing numbers of dissertations written in the field, the position of DS in the academy remains tenuous. There are no simple solutions to this problem, given the fact that the vast majority of academic positions except for full professorships are untenured; indeed, most are fixed-term contracts of several years' duration.
Of course, this produces considerable biographical insecurities among young scholars planning scientific careers, especially for those with family care responsibilities and those most affected by barrier-filled environments. The often-criticized German academic career model assumes financial and temporal independence and thus must be considered heavily ableist, especially when it glorifies "genius" and "autonomy.
Quota regulations and anti-discrimination laws have succeeded little in ensuring equality of these groups in science; they are highly underrepresented, especially at the tenured professorial level. Due to the dearth of positions—not to mention professorships—many young scholars are forced to leave DS behind to seek success in more mainstream disciplinary-based careers or to move abroad.
Yet those DS researchers who switch to other fields or institutions represent vital potential to implement progressive policies and programs in state administration, not-for-profit organizations, and in research and guidance centers. DS has a central role to play, particularly in the areas of education, employment, and health, just as its scholars should accompany the training of experts and professionals in these fields to ensure critical reflection and awareness of subjective perspectives of people with disabilities themselves.
Clearly, a focus on disablement a phenomenon rising over time and ableism a persistent feature of cultural contexts around the world provides a most significant and challenging topic for a range of disciplines. An open, multidisciplinary network that brings together those working on key DS topics—both within and outside the disability movement—is needed.
DS, like Gender and Queer Studies and other academic fields that arise within and grow in relationship to new social movements, raises crucial questions about problems of representation and giving voice. Because direct or personal representation can never be complete and individuals always have multiple memberships in social groups, it is time for DS in the German-speaking countries to revisit questions and conditions of participation in DS and its intellectual, political, and social agendas.
Advocacy in social policy and in science will of course occur mainly through affected interest groups and their representatives, increasing on global, national, and local levels simultaneously. At the same time, DS could potentially achieve more empowerment through a shift in science policy, especially via the translation and coordination of scholarship at higher levels and across fields that it could spearhead. The struggles described above, of establishing structures and expanding dialogue both within DS and within mainstream disciplines, need to be shouldered by as many people as possible.
This implies providing access to the members and advocates of many different groups to participate in the academic debates and on-going legal initiatives to enhance accessibility through reducing barriers, securing human rights, and eliminating discrimination. Thus far, feminist and queer approaches to difference seem to be farther along the path to academic "status".http://francogermaninstitute.com/images/honixunuz/405.php
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Focusing especially on Germany—among the largest language communities of Europe—we here identified facilitators of DS that should be further strengthened. In the coming era of a maturing multidisciplinary field, networks of DS scholars, activists, and stakeholders will subversively cross disciplinary, institutional, and political divides. The activities of the alliance among dozens of disability activist groups BRK-Allianz to monitor and critique the slow implementation of the UN-CRPD in Germany exemplifies the power of networking and coordination among activists, academics, and advocates.
Prominent conferences and book series will solidify the exchange of ideas and offer opportunities to broaden and deepen the conversation. The potential of disability studies in the German-speaking countries continues to develop. While the field is appropriately wide open, recognizing its subversive status and engaging the insights from DS worldwide—across language and disciplinary boundaries—would help to focus and unfold its critical powers.
Powell, Dr. Abstract What activities facilitate the development of disability studies DS? Introduction As in North America, disability studies in Europe has gained recognition, engaged both academic and civil rights debates, and developed border-spanning scientific exchange over the past several decades.
Contemporary Disability Studies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland between Academe and Activism Asking how disability studies have been developed over the past ten years, we here sketch some of the most relevant institutions, events, and actors that have actively produced such knowledge. Developing Disability Studies in the German-speaking Countries Locating the Foundations and Entering the Field For readers interested in German-speaking DS, we a locate the discourse in contemporary journals, b distinguish types of publication that provide introductions to DS, and c review empirical studies and contemporary scholarship.
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Neither has the diversity of empirical studies in German yet been reviewed in English; thus we begin such a process here: a Contemporary journals. Research Gaps in Contemporary German Disability Studies Our synthesis of contemporary DS in Germany must be selective, but it does show that disability has been approached mainly with discursive and power-based approaches that emphasize the state and its influential policies and programs and the professions, such as medicine and education, that re define disability. Analysis of Barriers to and Facilitators of Disability Studies Barriers include language hegemony, disciplinary dominance, lack of academic infrastructure, and ableism in the academy.
References Aichele, V. Behinderung und Menschenrechte [Disability and Human Rights]. Arnade, S. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte Menschen mit Behinderung [People with Disability]. Bolt, D. In: N. Watson, C. Roulstone Eds. London: Routledge, Politiken der Normalisierung.
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Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag. Disability History. Konstruktionen von Behinderung in der Geschichte. Bruner, C. Disability Studies, Schwerpunktheft. BRK-Allianz Berlin, Germany. Buchner, T. Von der Ausgrenzung zur Inklusion. Partizipative Forschung im Diskurs.