Prophets -- Jewish Bible Second Book of The Tanakh
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The history of the wanderings in the desert after the flight from Egypt; some legal and ritual regulations.
Contains speeches attributed to Moses shortly before his death which summarize the history of Israel and give ethical teachings. The emphasis is on the concentration of worship in one place, the Temple in Jerusalem.
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The earliest written texts cannot predate the monarchy, however. That is, c. The collection of the texts of the Nevi'im was not completed until around BCE. The Latter Prophets contain work attributed to the "literary prophets" those who left works in their own names who lived in the 8th - 5th centuries BC.
See also Significant Dates in Biblical History. These writings are regarded as having divine authority by all Christian denominations as well as all Jews and appear in all arrangements of the Christian Bible. However, although both Jews and Christians agree as to the authority of the preceding writings there are others which are disputed.
See below. In the Jewish religion following the Tanakh comes the Talmud which is composed of Mishnah --a body of legal and theological material supposedly delivered by God to Moses at the same time as the Torah. It was not, however, written down until the period BC - AD.
A Reform Approach to Tanakh Education
And Gemara , which elaborates on the Mishnah. Both these canons of literature were closed about the 5th century AD. They are not interpreted as authoritative in the Christian religion and do not appear in any Christian Bibles. The three sections of the Hebrew Bible--Torah, Nevi'im, and Ketuvim--seem to represent three successive stages of collection and redaction the work of editing. Note that Jesus accuses the scribes and Pharisees of taking away the key of knowledge.
What key is that? And what is God requiring of that generation? The answer is in the phrase " From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias Well, again, Abel was slain in the first book of the Bible Gen Now those Protestants who anticipate the answer might begin looking for the murder of Zacharias in the book of Malachi. Because Jesus is again referring to the full breadth of the scriptures the key of knowledge, the oracles of God , from the first book of the Old Testament, to the last book of the Old Testament.
A Protestant therefore, might well open their Bible to search in the last book of the Old Testament, Malachi, for the martyrdom of Zacharias. That is correct. In the Hebrew Bible the last book is the book of Chronicles. That is where we find the murder of Zechariah between the altar and the temple:. It is worth noting that while Abel was the first martyr, Zechariah is not the last in the Old Testament, chronologically speaking.
Understanding the Bible
That was the prophet Urijah, killed by king Jehoiakim in Jeremiah , more than a century after the martyrdom of Zechariah:. Had Jesus been speaking chronologically, from the first martyr to the last He would have said - from the blood of Able unto the blood of Urijah, but that is not what He intended. He was clearly saying from the first book of scripture, to the last book of scripture. Therefore, in Matthew and Luke , and in Luke , Jesus was explicitly referring to the order and divisions of the books in the Hebrew Bible as the complete span of scripture.
The following table shows the collective logical result of the quotes of Jesus. Note particularly that the third division of scripture is defined as beginning at Psalms and ending with 2 Chronicles. So why the seeming discrepancy in lineage? The author of the book of Zechariah about B. It may be that "son of Barachias" in Matt. Because the parallel passages of Luke and Matt. The books of the second and third divisions have been redistributed and arranged according to categories of literature -- history, poetry, wisdom, and prophecy. It is a significant fact that in all these Alexandrian Bibles the traditional Hebrew order is broken up by the interspersion of the additional literature among the other books, outside the law, thus [in the opinion of the Catholic writer] asserting for the extra writings a substantial equality of rank and privilege.
It is this striking change in grouping and sequencing of books in the Greek Septuagint that so eloquently testifies to the fact that in the above quotes from Jesus Christ, He was referring not to the Septuagint, which included apocryphal books not found in the Hebrew canon, but to the original TaNaKh, the Hebrew Bible, which excludes the apocryphal books. Note below the significant variations in content and ordering of books in the oldest existing copies of the Septuagint, and that no two are exactly alike.
While many have previously believed that Christ and the Apostles used the Greek Septuagint because it was the common tongue of the day, the recent discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran proves conclusively that the Old Testament was available in Hebrew in Israel at the time of Christ.
Note the following verse:. So it would seem, based on the above Catholic commentary, that Catholics do, in fact, accept that Christ was referring to scripture in the Hebrew language, and NOT a Greek translation! What is the LXX? No Jewish source versions of the Septuagint are known to exist today, fueling speculation that the apocryphal books may never have been a part of the original Jewish produced Greek manuscript, but were only included in subsequent Christian copies.
See Inventory of the Qumran manuscripts. Both these texts, attributed to Ben-Asher, placed Chronicles at the beginning of the 3rd division, the Ketuvim Writings. However, modern reprints of the Leningrad Codex have moved the book of Chronicles back to its tradition place at the end of the Ketuvim. See Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia. Note that while the Hebrew Canon counts 24 books, and the Protestant Old Testament counts 39 books, they are identical in actual content, the difference for the count being the grouping of certain books into one scroll in the Hebrew canon.
Also note the change in arrangement and sequence of books between the Hebrew and Christian Old Testaments. Orthodox Catholics also include 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, and Psalm So the New Testament, recognized unanimously by Catholics and Protestants alike as the inspired word of God, clearly indicates through the words of Jesus Christ that the Hebrew Bible, the TaNaKh, contains all the inspired canonical books of the Old Testament.
This excludes as spurious, and non-canonical, the Apocryphal or Deuterocanonical books found in Catholic Bibles, which are colored red in the above tables, and proves that Catholic definitions of the canon by Popes and Councils, to include the "infallible" declaration of Trent, are in error.
The Protestant Bible of 66 books, while it contains the same 39 Old Testament canonical books as the Hebrew TaNaKh, does not retain the original grouping and order cited by Jesus Christ, rather, it follows the order of the Latin Vulgate used by the Council of Trent in , when it allegedly declared the Roman Catholic Canon infallibly. Genesis 2. Exodus 3. Leviticus 4. Numbers 5. Deuteronomy Historical Books 6. Joshua 7. Judges 8. Ruth 9. Proverbs Ecclesiastes 20 Song of Songs Job Wisdom of Solomon Esther - Chapter 10 beginning at verse 4, thru Chapter Tobit Judith Prophetical Books Hosea Amos Micah Joel Obadiah Jonah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Isaiah Jeremiah Baruch Lamentations Epistle of Jeremiah Ezekiel Pentateuch 1.
Genesis fragments 2. Exodus missing 3. Leviticus missing 4. Numbers fragments 5. Joshua missing 7. Judges missing 8.
Ruth missing 9.