Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 68, Movement 3 - Full Score
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Flutes, clarinets, violas, and horns provide syncopated held thirds in support. Bassoons double the cellos, as they often have in the movement.
Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 68
This line reaches a clear cadence in C minor, and is harmonized by second violins, violas, and winds. The plucked cello line is interesting. It continues first with the previous fourth based on C.
This fourth is then turned around so that F is on the bottom and it is a fifth. Then comes another fourth based on G with C on top. The cellos hold a low C. The winds except flutes , led by the oboes, state the three-note half-step motive and then turn it back down to C, giving it closure. Overlapping with this turn, the strings, led by violins who are doubled by flutes , also begin the motive and turn it back to the closing C. A second oboe statement, the third overall, again overlaps with the turn. The music is hushed and slower, but still intense.
This time, however, the statement stalls. The second and third notes are both lengthened, and over them, clarinets and bassoons surreptitiously begin to state the opening arpeggios of Theme 1. The flutes and oboes join them after one bar. Then the third note of the ascending half-step motive is repeated.
In an incredible surprise for a movement so persistently in minor, they are played not on C minor, but on C major. The cadence was strong, but the movement ends quietly. The winds and timpani softly reiterate the C-major chord and the strings follow. The winds repeat the chord again, and the strings follow below them, along with a gentle timpani roll. A plucked C from the strings cuts off the chord and ends the movement.
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A Section [m. A bassoon doubles the violin melody. The initial statement is a gentle rise and fall with a dotted rhythm long-short on the fall. Three low repeated horn octaves bridge to the answer, which also incorporates a dotted rhythm and is given a dark, minor-key color. The bassoon has dropped out. The first bar has no bass line provided by the low strings.
They enter in the next bar with a surging triplet rhythm as the violins play a falling dotted rhythm. The surging bass is heard again a step lower under another violin dotted rhythm with a wider leap. The volume has swelled to a louder level than the opening. In the next bar, all the instruments settle down, the violins sliding down in dotted rhythm while the cellos play rising triplets. The cellos still punctuate the downbeats with triplets.
When the violins reach their high point, flutes, oboes, and clarinets make a somewhat dramatic entrance to support the harmony. The winds exit after two bars. It is extended with a viola echo and a half-cadence. The strings, except for light viola support, drop out, and other winds provide the harmony.
The oboe melody incorporates the sighing falls and dotted rhythms of the previous theme, but it is more dynamic. After two statements of the opening gesture, it rises to a full-hearted high point. Under this high point, the strings surreptitiously enter in unison with the opening rise and fall of the main theme. The oboe trails after this. A bassoon again doubles the first violins, and there is horn support.
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The phrase is cut off before its last sighing gesture, and is interrupted by a new syncopated descent beginning off the beat. This is slightly accented. Then, the answering phrase begins again, but it is transformed into a satisfying major-key cadence gesture that reaches a full close in E major. This closes the A section and merges directly into the B section.
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B Section, Part 1 [m. The second violins and violas follow on the lilting dotted rhythm as the first violins work upward by half-steps in syncopation. They then turn back downward as the low strings enter. They work back upward, now with the dotted rhythm displaced by syncopation. The second violins and violas continue with the original figures.
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There is then a huge swelling as the bassoons and horns enter with the dotted rhythm. The music suddenly darkens and turns to the related C-sharp minor. The dotted rhythm is now played by the low strings and suddenly takes on the character of a funeral march, a complete transformation from the lilting, graceful figures just heard. The upper strings continue to work downward, and only slightly diminish as the low strings move to soft plucking. This stormy passage culminates in a strong half-cadence that rapidly diminishes, leading into Part 2 of the B section.
Symphony No 1, C Minor, Orchestra
B Section, Part 2 [m. The violins and violas begin a series of harmonized and highly syncopated gestures, all of which begin off the beat. The first oboe note is sustained for a full measure, and it only moves after the downbeat of the next bar. This, combined with the syncopated accompanying string figures, as well as the construction of the melody itself, causes the meter and downbeat to become highly obscured.
The oboe melody meanders downward, then has an octave leap, after which it begins to pivot to A-flat major. The principal clarinet enters with a held note on an upbeat as the oboe wends its way downward. The syncopated gestures from violins and violas begin to have some stepwise motion rather than simply repeating notes.
The clarinet breaks, then has a wide rising figure. Under this, the low strings have entered.
They take over the figuration of the meandering melody as other winds also enter for a cadence. Strong accents on weak beats prolong the obscured meter and downbeat.
get link All strings play the original oboe melody in unison with an insistent character. The winds play melancholy, wailing gestures above them in octaves. The strings then depart from the oboe melody, expanding it with an upward sweep and breaking into harmony while the winds move to syncopated thirds. The higher strings reverse direction while the lower strings take the upward sweep. The second violins and violas move to undulating figuration, and the clarinets and bassoons follow the descent in thirds.
The top violin line becomes more syncopated, and the music becomes more urgent as it descends, leaping upward to postpone it. Finally, things start to settle down, the winds take over, and the music moves back to major, this time to the home key of E. Flutes and oboes, then violins and violas, then clarinets and bassoons, then upper strings again are isolated on harmonized four-note gestures.
Violas and cellos then close with a quiet, slower off-beat descent. Overlapping entries on rising, then falling figures, first in strings, then in winds, further obscure the meter. A soft timpani roll begins during the string descent. At that point, slight syncopation and extension help to restore a sense of pulse. The passage is quiet and mysterious, and becomes more so when the timpani roll is suddenly isolated. The theme emerges in the oboes and clarinets, but is obscured by the flutes, who play an upper harmony. The strings enter just after the winds, halfway through the upbeat, and play a sweeping line that also obscures the appearance of the main theme.
The cellos play plucked arpeggios in triplet rhythm. Only with the falling dotted rhythm is it clear that the theme has arrived. The timpani roll ends, and the continuing string line, rather than solemn horn octaves, bridges to the answer, which is now stated clearly by flute, clarinet, and bassoon. The low strings add an echo to the end of the answering phrase that was not heard at the beginning. The other winds provide the harmony in the opposite direction.
The strings add an entirely new element, rapid plucked rising arpeggios, then short notes leading into the next bar. The winds are now present throughout for support. The third suddenly and dramatically swells to the high point, which is warm and rich in comparison to the sighing gestures heard in the A section. It is also extended by a bar as the music quickly settles down again and the triplet rhythm stops. These lead to a full cadence in B major that is overlapped by the upbeat entrance of the solo violin that begins the second theme.
Rather than against a half-cadence, it now enters on a full B-major cadence. Thus, the pivot back to the home key of E adds fulfillment to this arrival.